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    关于我们

    什么是心理学?

    “什么是心理学”?

    大众媒体传播了不少错误观念、心理学专业所涉及的职业也非常广泛,这让我们更搞不清楚什么是心理学。

    心理学是在应用和学术领域研究人的心理和行为的科学。心理学的研究力图理解和说明思维、情感和行为。应用心理学包括心理健康治疗、绩效增强、自我协助、人类工程学以及其他许多关于健康和日常生活的领域。

    早期的心理学

    心理学从哲学和生理学演变而来。关于这两个主题的讨论可以追溯到早期的希腊思想家,包括亚里士多德和苏格拉底。心理学Psychology这个单词就是源自希腊语的payche,意思是“灵魂”或者“精神”。

    独立的科学分支

    冯特于1879年在德国的莱比锡大学建立了第一个心理学实验室,标志着心理学成为独立的学科。 冯特的重心放在描述心理的结构成分。这种观点在分析感觉和情感时在十分依赖于一种非常主观的研究方法——内省法。冯特认为经过正确训练的个体能够精确地辨认伴随着感觉、感情和思维的心理过程。

    思想派别

    在心理学的历史里,为了解释人的心理和行为,形成了许多不同的派别。这些派别都曾经主导一时。虽然他们常常被看作是相互对立的势力,但是每个学派都有助于我们对心理学的理解。下面就是一些主要的心理学流派:
    构造主义
    机能主义
    心理分析学派
    行为主义
    人本主义
    认知学派


    当今的心理学

    如今,心理学家倾向于采用多种客观的、科学的研究方法去理解,解释和预测人的行为。心理学研究已经高度结构化,从假设开始,然后主要通过实验验证。心理学包含两个主要领域:学术领域和应用领域。学术领域集中研究不同的心理学分支,包括人格心理学、社会心理学、发展心理学等。这方面的心理学家进行基础研究,解释理论方面的问题,而其他的研究者进行应用研究,解决人们遇到的日常问题。 应用心理学重点在使用心理学原理来解决遇到的问题。比如法律心理学、人类工程学和工业心理学。心理治疗师会帮助人们战胜心理的、行为的和情感方面的问题。

    心理学的研究方法

    自从心理学从哲学分离以后,心理学家就开始使用更科学的方法研究人的行为。当代的研究者们会同时使用多种科学的技术研究和解释、预测人的行为,比如实验研究、相关研究、追踪研究等。

    心理学研究领域

    心理学研究内容广泛,出现了许多不同的子分支。下面是一些主要的分支:
    变态心理学研究异常行为和精神病理学。这个特殊的分支集中在对不同的心理失常的研究和治疗,常常与心理疗法和临床心理学有关联。
    生物心理学研究生理过程是怎样影响心理和行为的。这个领域和神经系统科学有关,常常使用MRI(核磁共振成像)、PET(正电子发射断层扫描)去观察大脑的损伤和异常。
    临床心理学集中于心理测量、诊断和对心理异常的治疗。
    认知心理学研究人的思维过程和认知。认知心理学家研究注意、记忆、知觉、决策、问题解决和语言获得等内容。
    比较心理学研究动物的心理,从而使我们能更深入地理解人的心理过程。
    发展心理学研究人一生的成长和发展。发展心理学的理论常常集中在认知能力、道德、社会功能、同一性等问题上。
    法律心理学把心理学的研究和原则运用在法律和司法公司系统上。
    工业心理学使用心理学原则提高工作绩效,选择工作人员、改进产品设计和提高易用性。
    人格心理学研究组成每个人不同个性的元素。。知名的人格理论包括弗洛伊德的心理结构理论和大五人格理论。
    学校心理学是在教育系统里帮助孩子们解决遇到的情感、社会和学业方面的问题。
    社会心理学使用科学的方法研究社会影响、社会认知和社会互动。社会心理学研究的内容包括团体行为、社会知觉、领导能力、非言语行为、从众、侵犯和偏见。

    http://article.yeeyan.org/view/165977/246556
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