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    事件切割理论:咦,我刚才是要干什么来着?
    2012-10-11 16:52:44   来源:果壳网   评论:0 点击:

    一转身、一扭脸、一进门总是忘了自己要干什么,一张嘴、一提笔、一开电脑总是忘了自己想说什么。这是为什么呢?

     

    再没有什么比记忆还让人灰心丧气的了。它真是一件设计糟糕的产品——即使是片刻之前的事情,转眼间也会忘得一干二净。你在电脑前写着文章,决定去书房查些资料,可当你来到书架前,却不知道自己想要做什么。你注意到茶杯脏了,拿着杯子走到厨房里,拧开水龙头,却看着白花花的水流不知所措。类似的场景,真让人抓狂!

    究竟是谁偷走了你刚才的记忆?

    使人遗忘的神奇之门

    在“阴谋论者”的眼中,这件事情绝不简单:“每当你走进一间房间,却忘了自己进去时想干什么时,其实都是房间里有个外星人正好被你撞见了。火速赶来的黑衣人特工将外星人处理掉后消除了你的记忆,而你原来本想做什么事的记忆也被一起消除了。”

    不过,玩笑归玩笑,从美国圣母大学的加百利•雷万斯基(Gabriel A. Radvansky)等人在2011年发表的研究看来,门的确是个不祥的事物。仅仅是穿过一扇门,就会诱发人遗忘刚才的事情。

    在实验中,参与者在电脑前控制一个人物在虚拟空间里走动。他们要从一张桌子上拿起一件物品,放进“包”里,然后走到另一张桌子前放下。有时,两张桌子都在同一个大房间里;有时,人物需要穿过一扇门,才能到达另一间房间里的桌子。当人物刚经过一扇门,或在同一间房间走过相同的距离时,程序会让参与者就他们正拿着或刚放下的物品做出判断,记录他们的反应时间和错误率。而在另一个实验中,研究者把实验搬到现实生活中。虚拟的电脑空间换成了真实的房间。参与者把物体放在鞋盒中,在桌子间移动,同时携带笔记本电脑,随时回答问题。

    两个实验都呈现类似的结果:穿过一扇门后——不管这是一扇虚拟或真实的门——参与者对物品的回忆,反应更慢,准确率也更低。

    碎片化的生活

    这扇神奇的门究竟是什么?它如何对记忆发挥作用?在解释这个问题之前,我们有必要梳理一下记忆的几个基本概念。当你查到电话号码后立刻拨号,拨号后又立刻忘掉时,这时你用到的是工作记忆(Working memory)。这只是一个对信息进行暂时加工和贮存的记忆系统,很快就会遗忘。但如果你对这些信息进行巩固和加工,它就有可能进入能保存更长时间的长时记忆(Long-term memory)。长时记忆有多种,其中一种关于事件和情景的记忆,称作情景记忆(Episodic memory)。

    在事件切割理论(Event segmentation theory)看来,这扇诱发遗忘的门就是事件的边界(Event boundary)。尽管外界的信息源源不断地流向我们的感官,我们却会自动地把这股信息之流切分为一个个片段,把“正在发生的”和“刚刚发生过的”事情分开。而在这些边界处,我们的工作记忆就自动地“更新”,以处理当下的处境,而上一个事件的信息自动被清理,再难以回忆。在上文提到的实验中,当你穿过一扇门,尽管迈出的脚步只有咫尺之遥,你的记忆却已换了另一番小天地,也自然难以回忆上一个房间里的物品。

    在乐章的交替处,人们的右半球脑部活动会发生改变。其中TEMORAL即PTC。图片来自文献[3]。

    在乐章的交替处,人们的右半球脑部活动会发生改变。其中TEMORAL即PTC。图片来自文献[3]。

    不论是让参与者主动划分电影、图片、文字等信息的界限,还是测量他们在处理这些材料时的生理指标,都能发现人们切割事件的迹象。例如,让一些没有受过音乐训练的参与者聆听交响乐。在每个乐章的交替处,人们右半球脑部活动会悄然改变,首先是前额叶皮层腹外侧区(VLPFC)和后颞叶皮层(PTC)的活动增强,紧随着前额外皮层(DLPFC)和后顶叶皮层(PPC)的活跃。再如,测量人们观看视频时的眼动和瞳孔直径会发现,在事件的边界处,人们的瞳孔直径会突然增大,代表了认知活动增多。同时扫视增加,表明人们对于一个新事件的重新定向行为。

    事件切割的双重效应

    不过,事件切割对于记忆的影响是双重的。一方面,在事件的边界处,大脑会清空工作记忆,让你回忆不出上一个场景的信息;另一方面,为了适应新的事件,边界处的大脑会建立新的心理模型,注意增强,认知更活跃,此时的信息会受到更好的加工,从而可能进入长时记忆,过后还能被回忆起来。早在1992年,研究者就发现,同样的商业广告,如果放在电视剧两个事件的边界处,就比直接插入到同一个事件当中,更容易让人们记住。

    圣路易斯华盛顿大学的汉娜•斯瓦罗(Khena M. Swallow)等人于2011年发表的一项研究,详细论证了事件边界对于记忆的多重影响。在正式实验之前,他们让一些参与者观看电影,把它们划分成一个个片段事件。综合这些参与者的结果,研究者得以确定每个相邻事件之间的边界。接着,研究者让另外一批参与者观看这些电影。电影中,不断会有一些关于物品记忆的测试,询问五秒之前的某个物品是否出现过。

    研究者考虑了两种影响。第一,在这五秒的间隔中,有时事件发生转换。这样,参与者回忆的物品,有的属于上一个事件(物品C、D),有的还停留在当下同一个事件内部(物品A、B)。第二,有些物品的呈现时间,恰好呈现在事件转换的边界处。例如,在一段影片中,一个人用手抢瞄准气球,突然开火(事件转变)。此刻,墙上呈现一个钟,这个目标物品被研究者称为“边界物品”(物品B、D)。

    结果验证了研究者的理论。首先,回忆上一个事件中的非边界物品的成绩是最差的(物品C)。事件转换后,上一个物品的信息随着工作记忆一并清空——这就像你穿过一扇门后,就忘记了上一个房间的事情。但如果是回忆同一个事件内的物品,就没那么困难(物品A、B)。其次,那些边界物品,由于已经进入了长时记忆(这里指情景记忆),在事件转变之后仍然可以回忆(物品D)。甚至,由于当下的工作记忆被清空,认知负荷减少,没有目前信息的干扰,这种情况下的成绩反而最佳。

    图片改编自文献[6]。

    图片改编自文献[6]。

    记忆“缺陷”是一种优势

    为什么人们需要对事件进行划分?

    这是因为,我们无时无刻不在预测未来发生的事件。这种划分能力,能够让人把一个相对较长的时间段当做一个组块来处理,从而节省认知资源。而工作记忆的不断更新,则能够让你专注于当下的情景,不受此前信息的干扰。尽管偶尔会出现这么一点“忘记自己之前要干什么”的小故障,考虑到记忆带给我们的强大功能,这仍然是一笔合算的买卖。

    公元二世纪,身为古罗马皇帝同时也是一名哲学家的马可•奥勒留在《沉思录》中写到:“时间是一条河,一条激流,流淌的是发生了的事物;一旦事物呈现人眼,它即被带走,由另一事物替代它的位置,很快,这一事物也被带走。”

    我们的工作记忆也是这么一条转瞬即逝的河流,随着事件的变换,不断地新建又消逝。借用二十世纪现代主义建筑大师密斯的一句话——“少就是多”,不必苛求人的记忆事无巨细地记录下你生活的每个点滴,它正在用它的方式,给你创造一个高效而得体的生活。

    作者的P.S. 是不是一直在同样的地点干同样的事情,就不会有事了呢?其实,不仅是物理空间上的转换,心理上的场景变换——例如白日梦,也会诱发你的遗忘。


    参考文献:

    1.Radvansky GA et al. (2011). Walking through doorways causes forgetting: Further explorations. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64(8): 1632-1645.

    2.Kurby CA and Zacks JM. (2007). Segmentation in the perception and memory of events. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(2): 72-79.

    3.Sridharan D, et al. (2007). Neural dynamics of event segmentation in music: Converging evidence for dissociable ventral and dorsal networks. Neuron, 55: 521-532.

    4.Swallow, K.M. and Zacks, J.M. (2004). Hierarchical grouping of events revealed by eye movements. Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 9: 81.

    5.Boltz M. (1992). Temporal accent structure and the remembering of filmed narratives. Journal of Experimntal Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18(1): 90–105.

    6.Swallow KM, et al. (2011). Changes in events alter how people remember recent information. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 23(5): 1052-1064.


    引自: http://www.guokr.com/article/211049/

    相关热词搜索:事件切割理论 记忆 遗忘

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