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    為什么交朋友?看看進化怎么說
    2014-07-07 16:09:59   來源:果殼網   評論:0 點擊:

    友誼如此美好,都是有原因的。來看看生物學家勞倫·布倫特如何從進化角度來解讀。

    Lauren Brent

    生物學家,在美國杜克大學和英國艾塞克斯大學研究友誼及社會行為


    Hillwoods/譯)我們需要朋友。他們對我們的身心健康,甚至財富,都有著正面影響。相反的,與世隔絕則會引起一種類似肉體痛楚的不適感,會使我們緊張,易受疾病侵染。事實上,缺乏朋友時,我們的身體反應就如重要的生理需求未得到滿足一般。這不奇怪。對人類來說,朋友并不是可有可無的附屬品——進化促使我們依靠朋友。

    但友情是需要付出的;ㄔ谏缃簧系臅r間本可用于進行其他事關生存的活動,如準備食物、做愛和睡覺。此外,一件事于我們有益并不意味著它是必須的。這也說明了為什么我們會進化出交友欲,有要與朋友共度時光的需求。和性愛、進食或任何物種生存所需的本能一樣,友情由一套強化和獎勵體系所驅動。換言之,交友活動與多種大腦神經遞質和身體生物化學物質的釋放有關,這些神經遞質和生物化學物質能使人產生快感。

    為了了解是什么催生了友情,我們需從一個看似不相關的地方著手——哺乳。當嬰兒吃奶時,母親的腦垂體會釋放一種稱為催產素(oxytocin)的神經肽。這種物質使乳房的肌肉收縮,從而分泌乳汁,另外它還能減輕焦慮感、降低血壓和心率。對母親和嬰兒而言,這種由催產素帶來的放松感會促進哺乳過程,同時使母子之間建立強韌的愛的紐帶。

    這種現象在所有的哺乳動物中都存在,但在人類和少數幾種有交友行為的物種中,這套系統還被委以其他重擔,適用范圍大大擴展。進化并沒有重新設計出一套系統,而是對已有的系統進行優化。催產素不僅僅作用于母子關系,還作用于其他的人際關系。與他人進行有益的身體接觸,如擁抱、輕撫和按摩時,這種神經肽都會被釋放。隨之而來的愉悅心情則是這類互動的回報,并鼓勵你再次與那人見面。于是友誼的萌芽便孕育而生。

    當然,很多朋友間的互動并不涉及身體接觸,但催產素仍然以別的方式起著作用。它能引導人們做出親社會的決策,增進信任,并鼓勵施舍。催產素固然重要,但并不是唯一的友誼催化劑。另一種關鍵的參與者被稱為內啡肽,是一種類阿片活性肽類化合物。這種化學物質也由腦垂體分泌。輕度疼痛,比如鍛煉等,會引起內啡肽的釋放。這種大腦的神經遞質能使人產生幸福感。所有的脊椎動物都能生成內腓肽,所以它在催生友誼的過程中起到的重要作用,必定也是進化帶來的結果。內啡肽和催產素一樣,能讓人們在進行身體接觸時感覺良好,但它卻是從另一方面鞏固著友誼。

    嬰兒更愿意盯著臉,而不是其他東西。因為人臉這樣的社會信息,會激發大腦中有關獎勵機制的區域。圖片來源:《新科學家》

    英國牛津大學的羅賓·鄧巴(Robin Dunbar)及其同僚曾做過如下實驗 :他們要求實驗參與者獨自或兩人一組劃船,并在劃船前后測量內啡肽含量。他們的發現非常驚人。盡管付出的體力相同,成對協作劃船的人比獨自劃船的人釋放了更多的內啡肽。友情的一個重要的組成部分就是行為同步——在相同的時間和地點進行活動是建立和維持朋友關系所必須的。內啡肽似乎能使這種同步產生愉悅感,從而加強朋友關系。

    相反的,缺乏社交會造成非常負面的情緒。孤單的人應激激素皮質醇(cortisol)水平往往過高。長期的緊張會傷害健康,這可能解釋了為何缺乏社交的人罹患心血管疾病的風險更高,且更容易受到感染。應激反應是由下丘腦-腦垂體-腎上腺軸系統活化而產生的。這套系統的活化是身體內穩態受到干擾的征兆。

    壓力促使我們為回歸內穩態采取行動,這包括在疲勞時休息,以及在感到熱時尋找遮蔭處。它也有可能引導我們在感覺孤單時尋求社交活動。當我們緊張時,如果有朋友相伴,產生的皮質醇就較少。這一事實說明,朋友能幫助我們回歸內穩態,或是能預先防止內穩態受到干擾。

    為了選擇、獲得朋友和維持朋友關系,我們需要搜集社會信息。這也是我們喜歡做的。在學會說話之前,嬰兒喜歡觀察面部甚于其他視覺刺激。我們本能上認為社會信息更有意義,因為社會信息會激發大腦中有關獎勵機制的區域。德國柏林大學的達爾·梅西(Dar Meshi)給人們展示他們Facebook賬戶上的照片,同時用核磁共振儀對他們進行掃描。他發現,實驗參與者大腦中的伏隔核(accumben)非;钴S,而這片區域與毒癮有關。有趣的是,伏隔核最為活躍的人也是在社交媒體上最活躍的用戶。

    盡管交友活動背后的神經和生物化學活動對每個人來說都一樣,但有些人比其他人更讓人親近。這些人可能僅僅是更善于交朋友,但梅西的成果暗示他們可能更愿意從事交友活動,因為這能帶給他們更多快樂。讓人親近的人更合群,一部分是他們基因使然。美國加利福尼亞大學圣迭戈分校的詹姆斯·福勒(James Fowler)和美國哈佛大學的尼古拉斯·克里斯塔基斯(Nicholas Christakis)比較了同卵雙胞胎(基因完全相同)和異卵雙胞胎(平均只有50%的基因相同)的社交網絡。他們發現,這些雙胞胎在同齡人中各自受歡迎程度的差異,有46%是由基因造成的。

    同卵雙胞胎受人歡迎的程度,彼此相差不大。圖片來源:《新科學家》

    即便是交際花也不會和所有人都做朋友。那么在遇到的這么多人中,我們是如何擇友的呢?答案初看起來非常簡單——我們會與和我們有共同點的人成為朋友,不論他們跟我們是同齡、同性還是同一個行業。這種由“相似”到“相識”的趨向被稱為同質性,它也根植與我們的基因當中。

    福勒和克里斯塔基斯發現,人們與非血親的朋友在基因上的相似度,與共有曾曾曾祖父的遠房表親間差不多。我們為何樂意與完全陌生的人協作,這是友情的一個神秘之處。從進化的角度來說,你應當與血親而不是志趣相投的人協作,因為你們在遺傳上的相似會使你間接受益。換句話說,如果他們能將更多的與你共有的基因遺傳給后代,你的目的也就相當于達到了。但是,如果碰巧朋友和我們在基因上擁有出乎預料的相似之處,我們也許應該將他們當作“準親戚”,而非陌生人。(編輯:Steed

    編譯自 《新科學家》,Friends with benefits

    相關熱詞搜索:生物學 友誼 交朋友

    上一篇:MIT科學家將不存在的恐怖回憶植入小鼠大腦
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