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    2012年度十大心理学发现
    2013-09-06 13:45:35   来源:转贴   评论:0 点击:

    玩游戏好不好?该不该出国?“心理距离”能变出什么魔法?广告真能诱导消费?花钱可以让人快乐吗?大脑为什么关键时刻总“卡壳”?心理能力能改变吗?心理感受为何百人百样?大脑也爱“偷懒”乱贴标签吗?左右大脑能说“悄悄话”吗?
      美国《今日心理学》杂志评出了2012“年度十大心理学发现”。这其中有和人们生活息息相关的内容,也有预示了未来研究发展趋势的重大发现。让我们一起来看看即将过去的这一年有哪些值得关注的心理学研究吧!

      1.电脑是把“双刃剑”

      玩游戏好不好?心理学家争论不休。美国爱荷华州立大学特聘教授克雷格·安德森等人指出,有“打打杀杀”等暴力情节的游戏会让人滋生暴力倾向。2010年4月的另一项研究发现,玩PSP游戏[敏感词]机的孩子,学习成绩普遍下降。但是,还有科学家发现,打游戏尤其是动作类游戏可以让人反应更灵活,是很好的反应能力和准确性训练方法;《人格与社会心理学》杂志还有一篇文章指出,玩游戏会让人心肠好、更热心。

      2.出国激发创造力

      该不该出国?心理学研究告诉你。美国马里兰大学帕克分校心理学教授米歇尔·盖尔范德等人发现,与其他文化的人群进行接触,会提高人们的谈判能力。欧洲工商管理学院的3位心理学家同样发现,旅居国外,学习并吸收外国文化,能帮你打开一种全新的思路,从而增强创造力。他们提出了“文商”(文化商数CQ)这一概念,并发现CQ在国际谈判中起着非常重要的作用。

      3.冲动让人不理智

      我们常说“距离产生美”,“距离”到底能变出什么魔法呢?2010年7月,美国纽约大学心理学教授阿加姆·特罗普和美国特拉维夫大学社会心理学副教授尼拉·利伯曼提出“建构水平理论”的说法。他们指出,制造一点“心理距离”,比如想买手机时别马上掏钱,过几天再决定,会让你更抽象地思考,抓住如“通话质量好不好”这种主要矛盾,而避开如“铃声好不好听、颜色好不好看”等细节问题和感性的干扰,帮助我们作出更明智的选择。

      4.广告可以诱导人们的选择

      如今的世界,无论看电视、看报纸、听广播、上网……广告简直无孔不入。你可能觉得广告只能宣传商品,买东西时,大脑自会有个“管家”让自己理性消费。而加拿大瑞尔森大学经济学副教授梅勒妮·邓普斯等人发表在《消费者研究》上的文章表明,给某一商品“戴高帽”,会激活大脑愉快的情感反射,让你不由自主地对它产生好印象,而忽略其真实的质量。即使你知道它品质一般时,也会屈服于广告的效应,这一过程被称做“情感调节”,也叫“移情”。

      5.花钱过程提升幸福度

      美国盖洛普公司公布了一项大规模调查结果,这项涉及132个国家13.6万人的研究发现,金钱能改善人们的生活质量和满意度,但对日常情绪的影响极小,这种联系与性别、年龄和社会阶层等因素无关。随后,英国沃里克大学和卡迪夫大学的研究人员指出,幸福感并不在于金钱的绝对值,而是与身边的人相比,是不是比他们挣得要多。此外,美国康奈尔大学的心理学家崔维斯·卡特和汤姆·基洛维奇发现,与花钱买到的东西相比,花钱的经历其实更让人开心。而哥伦比亚大学的研究人员则发现,花钱买礼物送人或者捐款做善事,不仅能让人更快乐,还能提高身体免疫力。

      6.压力让大脑变得迟钝

      你有没有过这样的经历?明明演讲稿已经背得滚瓜烂熟,上了台却卡住了。越到关键时刻,越容易出“状况”,真的是太紧张了吗?美国芝加哥大学心理学教授西汉·贝洛克在《窒息》一书中指出,大脑“卡壳”的秘密在于“内存”不够!紧张、焦虑等情绪会存在“工作记忆”这个“内存”里,太紧张了,不良情绪把“内存”装满,原本储存在大脑里的其他资源,自然没有空间提取出来了。

      7.自信可以助人成功

      美国斯坦福大学心理学教授卡罗尔·德维克等人发表在《心理科学》上的一项研究指出,人们对自己的心理能力抱有不同的信念,有人认为心理能力是一种天赋,无法改变,有的人则坚信心理能力是靠经验获取的,并随时间而变化。坚信自己拥有强大的心理潜能,并勇于挖掘,会激发顽强的意志力,使精力更旺盛,心里更有“韧劲”,从而可以更冷静地面对偏见、伤害和挫折,最终一步步赢得成功。

      8.“贴标签”影响判断力

      美国里海大学心理学副教授阿曼达·布兰登和密歇根大学心理学博士苏珊·吉尔曼发表在《认知科学》上的一项研究发现,人的大脑也有这个毛病。一旦我们把一个事物归到某一类,即使没有亲眼见到,也会把这一类物品的特点强加到它身上,比如“天下乌鸦一般黑”“独生子女问题多”“有钱人不靠谱”。研究者称之为“刻板印象”,这说明我们的大脑也会“偷懒”,想找捷径去认识世界,而“分类”是最便捷的判断方法。殊不知,生活中很多偏见和歧视正是由于轻易“贴标签”造成的。

      9.偶然并非全是无根之源

      由于心理感受百人百样,很多心理现象具有强烈的不确定性,无法像数学题那样得出“一加一等于二”的结果,这一难题困扰心理学家多年。2010年12月,脑科学研究专家、美国印第安纳大学心理学教授乔纳·莱勒对心理学研究的统计方法进行了改良,他将“贝叶斯统计”的手段引入心理学,这一“革命性”的成果发表在《认知科学》杂志上。

      10.左右大脑能对话

      2010年开始,“核磁热”横扫世界,功能核磁共振成像(简称fMRI)让人在没有创伤和痛苦的情况下,看到大脑的活动。以前,科学家致力于研究大脑思考时的活动状态。新研究发现,大脑“休息”时也不平静,某些区域会出现同步的活动趋势,它们之间像说“悄悄话”一样,有重要的联络,被称为“功能连接”。


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