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    为什么当你不努力去思考的时候好点子却出现了
    2012-06-07 15:13:10   来源:   评论:0 点击:

    历史记载了好多灵感顿悟的时刻:科学家当中,从阿基米德到艾萨克·牛顿和阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦,据说都有过在想其它事情的时候灵感突然闪现的经历。而这心理现象背后的运行机制到现在还不清晰。现在有个研究表明只...

    历史记载了好多灵感顿悟的时刻:科学家当中,从阿基米德到艾萨克·牛顿和阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦,据说都有过在想其它事情的时候灵感突然闪现的经历。而这心理现象背后的运行机制到现在还不清晰。现在有个研究表明只是纯粹地休息一阵子带不来灵感——相反地,创造力是由允许心灵漫游的任务培养出来的。

     

    该现象是由本杰明·贝尔德和乔纳森·斯库勒引导的团队发现的。本杰明·贝尔德和乔纳森·斯库勒是圣巴巴拉市加利福尼亚大学的心理学家。研究人员给145个本科生布置了两个“非常规用途”的任务:给他们两分钟的时间列举出我们日常接触到的物体,比如牙签、衣架、砖头等的尽可能多的用途。

     

    两分钟过后,参与者们被给予12分钟的休息。在他们休息的同时,要么承担一个需要他们全身贯注的要求很高的记忆活动,要么沉浸于一项已知会引发思绪游离的要求不高的测试反映时间的活动。第四小组的学生没有休息。所有的参与者们后来都被给予4个“非常规用途”的任务,其中包括两个他们之前有完成过的任务。

     

    那些有做过要求不高的活动的学生在第二次尝试他们重复做过的任务时平均表现比之前好41%。相反地,其它3个小组的学生则没有进步。这个实验将被简短地发布于《心理科学》上。

     

    “传统的研究发现快速眼动睡眠授予创造性的洞察力。而允许注意力漫游也能激发创造力十分神奇。我想他们意识到了这儿非常有有趣的东西。” 萨拉·梅得尼克,一个加州大学河滨分校的心理学教授如是说。

     

    “这项研究真的像在文献中捅了一个洞。”约翰·库尼奥斯也持赞同观点。约翰·库尼奥斯是坐落在宾夕法尼亚州费城的德雷塞尔大学的一个心理学家。

     

    执行了要求不高的任务的参与者们在第二轮的“非常规用途”任务中对于那些他们也是第一次接触的题目的表现并没有比其他组做得更好。“这暗示着思绪游离只对解决那些之前有在脑海里考虑过的问题有帮助。它似乎并没有能够引发创造性的问题解决能力的总体提升。” 贝尔德说。

     

    开小差的上部

    贝尔德的实验不仅揭露了纯粹的休息并不能激发创造性思维,而且暗中揭开了一个困扰心理学家们的大谜团:为什么我们开小差?

     

    从进化的角度讲,思绪游离似乎完全是起反作用的,而且被看成是不正常的,因为它在体育活动中让人表现欠佳。但是,贝尔德的实验告诉我们,当人脑在考虑复杂问题的时候,允许它进入这样的一种状态可以带来真正的效益。当生存取决于创造性的解决方案的时候,开小差可能对人类有帮助。

    http://article.yeeyan.org/view/333256/288914

    相关热词搜索:灵感 创造性思维

    上一篇:父亲和孩子重塑彼此的神经细胞
    下一篇:PNAS:研究称人脑内部有“测谎仪” 怀疑他人时启动

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