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    Int. J Obes.:偶尔禁食或可预防痴呆和癌症
    2012-06-07 15:41:49   来源:生物谷   评论:0 点击:

    在不太遥远的将来,家庭医生可能建议你每周禁食两天,以预防大脑因衰老萎缩,降低心脏病、糖尿病甚至于癌症患病风险。过去,禁食是一种常见的治疗方式,根据新研究发现,我们应该回归这种传统疗法,因为禁食似乎能够触发一系列有益身体健康的激素和代谢变化。

    专家们表示大幅减少食物摄入量能够触发大脑内的保护性过程

    能够保护大脑

    研究人员很久以前就发现,在长时间内减少动物的卡路里摄入量能够让它们的寿命延长50%。由于很少有人愿意长时间饿肚子,因此很难证明这种方式能否也让人类受益。不过,越来越多的证据显示偶尔禁食——具有更大的可操作性——同样能够让身体受益。这种禁食是指将每天的热量摄入量控制在500到800卡之间。通常情况下,女性每天的热量摄入量为2000卡,男性为2500卡。

    研究发现禁食似乎能够降低生长因子(一种与癌症和糖尿病有关的激素)水平,同时减少血液中的有害LDL胆固醇和甘油三酸酯。此外,与疾病有关的破坏性分子自由基也会得到抑制,炎症也能得到缓解,甚至能够保护大脑。美国国立衰老研究所的神经系统科学部门负责人马克-马特森教授表示:“突然大幅减少食物摄入量——至少减少一半——能够触发大脑内的保护性过程。大脑从中获得的益处与体育锻炼不相上下。这能够保护大脑免遭阿尔茨海默氏症和帕金森氏症等退化性疾病侵袭。”

    马特森是研究禁食的先驱者之一,几年前,他取得一项研究突破,发现如果每隔一天减少老鼠的热量摄入量,老鼠几乎能够获得与完全禁食相同的所有益处。此外,一直保持低热量摄入饮食习惯的老鼠也能获得相同的益处。如果人类减少热量摄入量,哪怕不是每天禁食,只是偶尔禁食,也能从中受益。很多实验已经证明了这一点。

    可逆转糖尿病

    在一项研究中,一组肥胖症和超重女性每天摄入1500卡热量,另一组每周有两天只摄入500卡热量,其他天摄入2000卡热量。两组女性在研究过程中都遵照健康的地中海饮食结构。研究领导人、英国曼彻斯特大学营养学家米歇尔-哈维博士表示:“我们发现两组女性差不多减掉了相同的体重,可提高癌症风险的生物标记水平下降程度也不相上下。我们的目的是确定哪一种方式更有效。我们发现禁食组女性对胰岛素敏感性的改善程度更高。”对胰岛素的敏感性提高能够更好地控制血糖水平。研究发现刊登在2011年的《国际肥胖症杂志》上。

    2011年,英国纽卡斯尔大学的研究人员报告称,通过在8周内让一些超重人群的热量摄入量控制在800卡,他们成功“逆转”了这些超重人群的糖尿病。研究人员指出,每隔一天减少热量摄入不仅是身体能够承受的,同时也能有效控制糖尿病患者的血糖水平。

    人体测试即将开始

    目前,马特森教授正对不同程度的禁食所能给大脑细胞带来的益处进行研究。根据一篇研究论文,限制热量摄入能够防止大脑细胞遭到破坏,同时提高它们应对压力的能力。研究论文将于3月刊登在著名科学杂志《自然-神经科学》上。马特森表示:“造成这种积极影响的部分原因在于,减少热量摄入能够刺激胃饥饿素、瘦素等食欲激素。如果你不是超重人群,这些激素能够刺激新的大脑细胞生长,尤其是在海马状突起。”海马状突起与储存记忆有关。

    如果体重开始增加,胃饥饿素水平下降,大脑细胞的更新也趋于缓慢。马特森说:“这种影响在40和50多岁的人身上尤为明显,具体原因仍是一个未知数。在这两个年龄段出现肥胖预示着日后会出现认知问题。”好消息是,这种脑细胞受损能够通过每周禁食两天得到逆转,虽然马特森只在老鼠身上发现这种效果。据悉,人体测试将在不久后进行。我们有理由相信禁食能够对人体产生同样效果。

    坚持很重要

    根据马特森几年前进行的一项小规模研究,每隔一天禁食能够对哮喘病患者产生惊人的积极影响。他说:“8周后,研究参与者的体重减少8%,炎症也得到大幅缓解。测试结果表明炎症标志物水平降低了90%。随着炎症大幅缓解,他们的呼吸变得更容易。”但马特森同时也警告称,患者必须坚持这种饮食习惯,因为症状在停止禁食后两周便卷土重来。

    并非所有人都能坚持做到偶尔禁食。在哈维最近对超重女性进行的研究中,非禁食组(每天摄入1500卡)中愿意坚持的人数超过每周禁食两天的女性。她说:“禁食并不适合所有人。在一些人看来,每周两天内减少3000到4000卡热量摄入量而后在余下几天保持正常的摄入量要比每天坚持较低的热量摄入量更具有吸引力,但在其他人眼里,这却是他们无法接受的。根据我的经验,男性似乎更能适应这种饮食习惯。”

    马特森教授认为禁食能够提高我们的健康状况。他说:“研究显示,如果能够在成年后保持健康的饮食习惯和生活方式,绝大多数人都能很好地预防大脑老化。”然而,由于高热量的饮食习惯以及缺乏锻炼,阿尔茨海默氏症等大脑疾病正呈增多趋势。

    需征询医生建议

     

    英国医学研究理事会饮食与健康部门负责人苏珊-杰布博士表示,很多人能做的最健康的事情就是减肥。“我完全相信这种方式能够发挥作用。”不过,禁食是否可作为一种治疗方式,治疗心脏病或者痴呆风险提高的人群,还不能现在下结论。杰布说:“我们需要对更多人进行更多更长时间的测试,了解禁食可能产生的所有影响。”

    发现禁食的健康功效外,现在的马特森坚持每天减少热量摄入量。他说:“我每天的热量摄入量控制在1800卡左右,并不极端。一周内,我不吃任何早餐或者午餐,但晚餐非常丰盛。我知道不能将这种饮食习惯推荐给绝大多数人,但它对我非常有效。”然而,杰布却对禁食持反对态度。她说:“我们并不清楚禁食随着时间推移将对新陈代谢产生何种影响。如果禁食一两天,人们可能认为他们可以在不禁食的时候暴饮暴食。”

    英国饮食协会警告称,经常禁食可提高骨质疏松症和不育风险。目前,很多科学家仍不清楚禁食可能产生哪些负面影响。如果所能带来的益处与研究发现的一样,很多人可能愿意选择“饿肚子”。但专家们表示,在决定禁食前最好征询医生的意见。

    http://www.bioon.com/biology/neuroscience/518898.shtml

    相关热词搜索:禁食 痴呆 健康

    上一篇:PNAS:说两种语言或可引起大脑变化
    下一篇:研究称心理压力更多地取决于基因而非生活环境

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